pH corresponds to the hydrogen potential of a solution, determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions (H +) and serves to measure the degree of acidity, neutrality or alkalinity.
The pH is represented on a scale range from 0 to 14, measuring the acidity and basicity of a solution.
Therefore, pH 7 represents a neutral solution (for example, pure water).
Those that are before him are considered acidic solutions (acidic pH), and those that are after 7 are the basic solutions (alkaline pH).
The lower the pH value, the more acidic the solution will be.
GH is an abbreviation for Gesamthäerte, which means “general/total hardness” in German, but the most common use is English “General Hardness”.
GH is defined as the sum of divalent cations in solution (ions with a charge of +²), including elements such as calcium, magnesium, strontium and many types of heavier metals, such as iron and copper.
Because magnesium and calcium ions are much more abundant in water than other types of divalent cations, GH is essentially the combined concentration of magnesium and calcium ions.
KH, or Karbonathäerte, is a measure of the alkalinity of the solution.
The carbonate / carbonate hardness refers only to carbonates and bicarbonates dissolved in water, as there are other compounds, including some phosphates, silicates and others that also have the buffer effect.
The carbonate-KH hardness is responsible for the “buffer effect“, which is the ability to maintain a stable pH, even with the addition of acids or bases (alkaline compounds). In this way, pH is closely related to KH.
Drop tests (reagents) are more accurate
TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and EC (Electrical Conductivity) are acronyms used to calculate total dissolved solids / electrical conductivity. TDS is the set of all organic and inorganic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or microgranular forms. It is a parameter for determining water quality, as it assesses the total weight of mineral constituents present in water, per unit volume, part per million (ppm) or microsiemens / cm (µS / cm).
A standard conductivity ratio in µS / cm for TDS is 2: 1
The dissolved substances involve carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and organic ions, among other ions necessary for aquatic life.
When using osmosis water (without mineral salts) and adding the specific mineralization to obtain the desired GH, Kh, you can see equivalence to the TDS, being able to use this value as a reference to prepare identical water without need to constantly measure the GH and KH.
It is only possible because in osmosis water you will mainly have these minerals added.
TDS meters can have different measuring scales, and the best way to know the equivalence is after preparing the water, measuring GH and KH.
NEOCARIDINA / TIGER (Caridina)
Ideal for those who want to start the hobby due to its enormous resistance and breadth of parameters.
Any inert substrate can be used to maintain these parameters since the high kH buffer effect will allow pH stability.
These prawns can be kept in many waters obtained at home, through the net, however, always pay attention to possible harmful metals.
PH: 6.5 – 8.0
GH: 4 – 14
KH: 1- 6
The favorites of the most experienced ones, they are shrimps with acidic parameters but which require control and stability in parameters. The use of a specific substrate for Caridinas is recommended, canceling out the KH (depending on the water in use) and replacing its effect keeping the pH stable.
It is preferable to use osmosis or bottled water with low mineralization with the addition of GH + minerals to achieve the desirable.
PH: 5.5 – 6.5
GH: 4 – 6
KH: 0 – 2
TDS: 100 – 180
Shrimps with alkaline parameters, but unlike the Neocaridina, they require greater control and stability in the aquarium and water changes.
They live in temperatures higher than all the others and most of them are only possible to maintain using mineralization specific to the species in question.
PH: 7.5 – 8.5
GH: 4 – 10
KH: 5 – 10